Arriving into (or transiting) Schiphol airport in Amsterdam is a breeze as it's really well set up & uses modern technology in many ways. If you're wanting to store luggage, there's a great facility for this below the arrivals hall with friendly staff to assist you.
The train from the airport to the city departs every 15 minutes, takes 20 minutes max and costs EUR5.00 one way. When you arrive into the city central station, you can either walk if don’t have too much luggage, or you can take one of the trolley buses to your accommodation.
Once in the city - the best way to explore is on foot, by boat or bike - so put on your walking shoes, grab an umbrella and head in any direction that takes your fancy. There's bridge after bridge, cyclists coming from every direction at full speed and plenty of small quaint eateries that you can pop into. For any of the main attractions, allow plenty of time as queues can be long, but there are many options to get off the beaten track & avoid the touristy areas, including some very interesting history walks.
Most importantly, don't be afraid of getting lost as you'll discover all sorts of things...and there's always a way back.
Amsterdam is a vibrant and diverse city where most locals own a bike, but if two wheels isn’t your style you can also use the excellent tram system.
Do consider Amsterdam as your next gateway into Europe - it's a FANTASTIC city!